what are linux commands and the 4 types of them

shell commands that are builtin to the shell

In Linux or any unix based system, a command refers to a directive that can used to invoke computer program. This program then acts as an interpreter to the command and its options and arguments, and performs a specific task. In most scenarios, a command refers to a directive in the command line which is usually a shell such as…

how to access ftp servers and transfer files in linux without an ftp client

accessing ftp server using dolphin in kde

Many times softwares are hosted on ftp servers, especially open source and not so popular ones. FTP servers are also good method to transfer files and folder between machines. This means that you will need to occasionally connect to FTP file servers either to download or upload files. If you happen to work with FTP servers a lot, then it…

how to configure proxy server in kde

kde network and proxy server settings in system settings dialog

Depending on the network you are connected to, you may need to configure a proxy server in order for you to connect to the internet. A proxy server is not a part of every network and is not a required component of a network. Large networks, such as corporate networks usually have a proxy server that allows the network traffic…

how to change port number of ftp (vsftpd, ProFTPd) in linux

linux ftp server port configuration

One of the most popular methods of transferring files between machines is using a FTP server and client. There are quite a few FTP servers out there, and almost all of the Linux distros comes with one by default. If you are not happy with the one that is installed by default, you can always install another one. By default,…

4 advanced calculators that you can use from linux command line

qalc or qalculate calculator in linux command line

Almost all modern day Linux distros come with a calculator application by default, unless you use Gentoo, Arch or a similar distro. Most times such GUI based calculator are sufficient to do some quick calculations. However you may not have access to a GUI based system all the time, and you would want to use a command line based calculator…

how to change the default ssh port in linux

linux change default port

One of the best ways to connect to a remote machine is by using the ssh protocol. Secure Socket Shell (or ssh) is a cryptographic network protocol that allows you to securely connect to a remote machine. It also refers to a suite of utilities that implement the protocol, such as the ssh server and an ssh client. In order for…

how to find all files containing specific text in a linux filesystem?

search text in file content with grep

Most search utilities work by crawling, parsing and generating an index of the file content so that they can be searched later. Many operating systems and desktop environment follow this approach to make searching faster. We will see how to search through file content from the command line, without the use of such indexes or engines. Needless to say, these…

7 of the best web browsers that you can use in linux

vivaldi browser in linux

Everybody needs a web browser. The web browser is probably one of mostly widely used tools in this day of cloud computing and internet. Google even made an operating system out of a browser. What browser you use depends much on its feature set and your own preferences. Almost all of the popular web browser today, have a very similar…

how to change the document root directory in apache web server in linux

document root in apache web server

The Apache Web Server is one of the most popular web servers that is used both in development and production. As per the latest count, it boasts close to 50% of the market share. There are many reasons as to why the Apache server is popular. It is easy to install, configure and run. It is pretty light weight and…

how to sort the output of ‘top’ command by memory or cpu usage

linux top command sorted by cpu

One of the programs that you can use to quickly see the process information is the top command. The fact that the command can be run from virtually any command prompt and it is self updating makes it a handy tool. You can quickly find the processes that are consuming too much resources on the machine. In most cases, running…

how to sort du command output by size in linux

sorting du output in linux

If you use a Linux system often enough, you should already be familiar with the du command. The du command allows you to check or print the file space usage. You can use it to print out the current disk usage for a set of files and folders. The ability to print out folders sorted by size can be useful when…

how to get current date and time inside a shell script

date and time in shell

When writing shell scripts, many times you would want to get the current time and date, that is the date and time when the script is getting executed. This value can be saved to a variable and used through out the script for various different purposes. You can use them to generate informative file names or even other variables. You can…